According to an article in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a publication of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is higher than ever . The CDC periodically surveys the prevalence of ASD, looking during each surveillance period at the percentage of 8-year-old children who have current ASD diagnoses. In 2000, a survey of children born in 1992 revealed that one in 150 had ASD. These numbers have been steadily climbing, such that the most recent survey — completed in 2008 and surveying children born in 2000 — indicates that one in 88 children has ASD. The numbers are even more disturbing for male children, who have an ASD prevalence of one in 54.
With humans living longer than ever before, diseases associated with aging are becoming a major focus of medical research. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are a major source of concern to aging adults. This is because such diseases not only lead to death, they do so through a particularly frightening route that includes loss of independence, memory, function, and personality. All adults experience a decline in certain aspects of brain function as they age. Memory, speed of cognition, and reasoning are among the functions most affected . The effects of aging on cognition appear to be due to atrophy of brain tissue in particular regions, especially the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex , as well as decreased neurotransmitter levels.
Inhaled corticosteroids are used by millions of asthma patients every day. However, as with all treatments to control asthma, there is marked patient-to-patient variability in the response to treatment. New research published today in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) has identified a genetic variant associated with the response to inhaled corticosteroids . Investigators have found that asthma patients who have two copies of a specific gene variant responded only one-third as well to steroid inhalers as those with two copies of the regular gene.
The largest and most rigorous twin study of its kind to date has found that shared environment influences susceptibility to autism more than previously thought.
The study, supported by the National Institutes of Health, found that shared environmental factors — experiences and exposures common to both twin individuals — accounted for 55% of strict autism and 58% of more broadly defined autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Genetic heritability accounted for 37% of autism and 38% of ASD. Random environmental factors not shared among twins play a much smaller role.