Scientists may have discovered how the most common genetic cause of Parkinson’s disease destroys brain cells and devastates many patients worldwide.
A number of studies have asserted that moderate drinking has a positive benefit on cardiovascular health. Now, scientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center have discovered how alcohol consumption can help to prevent heart disease. The research, published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, studied the effects of moderate amounts of alcohol in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and in the carotid arteries of mice . In both cases, regular, limited amounts of alcohol inhibited a protein called Notch 1 and prevented the buildup of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels that leads to the narrowing of the arteries and can put you at risk for a heart attack or stroke.
The cell cycle is a series of ordered events that occur in a cell between it’s initial formation and eventual duplication and division into two daughter cells. Cells in the human body normally reproduce up to ~50 times , doubling their number with each cell cycle. Stem cells provide a pool of dividing cells to replace those that have died.
Interphase, the period between cell divisions, is where most cells remain for at least 90% of the cell cycle. Interphase consists of three phases: G1 (for gap 1), S phase (for synthesis) and G2 (for gap 2). During G1, the cell undergoes rapid growth and metabolic activity, including production of RNA and synthesis of protein. For the cell to divide and produce an identical copy of itself, its genome must be duplicated. DNA replication occurs in S phase. During G2, cell growth continues and the cell prepares for division. Cell division or mitosis occurs in M phase.
In normal cells, during G1 there are specific genes that control the speed of the cell cycle. These genes, called tumor suppressors and oncogenes, are mutated (meaning damaged) in cancer cells and can result in uncontrolled reproduction. Additionally, unlike normal cells, cancer cells do not stop reproducing after ~50 divisions. Thus, a cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells.